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Institute of Neural Regeneration & Tissue Engineering




Damage to neural tissue is one of the leading causes of death and permanent disability in the world and also presents one of the greatest challenges in current medical care. The consequences of neurological disease and injury can be devastating, not only causing death but also imposing long-term disabling burdens on victims both emotionally and financially. Neural tissue damage can be broadly classified into diagnoses with the highest incidence and prevalence: stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) comprise Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease, amongst others. Estimates for epidemiological data for the world and the United States are assembled in the table below. Traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), and neurodegenerative disease (NDD) cause significant neural damage to millions of people each year, and therapies to restore neural function or repair damage to neural tissue remain elusive.

Estimates of epidemiological data for neurological diseases and injuries. Incidence refers to the number of people affected by the disease or injury each year, and incidence refers to the number of people living with the residual effects of the condition.

Epidemiology of Neurological Disease

* Incidence is based on presentations for emergent care. Prevalence not reported for TBI due to vast variance in degree and classification of ongoing symptoms from an acute event.




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2) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of stroke—United States, 2006-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.  61(20), 379, 2012.

3) Kelly-Hayes M, Beiser A, Kase CS, Scaramucci A, D'Agostino RB, Wolf PA. The influence of gender and age on disability following ischemic stroke: the Framingham study. J Stroke Cerebrovasc. Dis. 12(3), 119, 2003.

4) Mukherjee D, Patil CG. Epidemiology and the global burden of stroke. 76(6), S85, 2011.

5) Langlois JA, Rutland-Brown W, Wald MM. The epidemiology and impact of traumatic brain injury: a brief overview. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 21(5), 375, 2006.

6) Corrigan JD, Selassie AW, Orman JA. The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 25(2), 72, 2010. (Erratum 25(3), 224, 2010.)

7) Gustavsson A, et al. CDBE 2010 Study Group. Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 21(10), 718, 2011. (Erratum 22(3), 237, 2012.)

8) National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Spinal cord injury facts and figures at a glance. J Spinal Cord Med. 36(1), 1, 2013.

9) Jackson AB, Dijkers M, Devivo MJ, Poczatek RB. A demographic profile of new traumatic spinal cord injuries: change and stability over 30 years. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 85(11), 1740, 2004.

10) Wyndaele M, Wyndaele JJ. Incidence, prevalence and epidemiology of spinal cord injury: what learns a worldwide literature survey? Spinal Cord. 44(9), 523, 2006.

11) Thies W, Bleiler L. Alzheimer's Association. 2013 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 9(2), 208, 2013.

12) Pringsheim T, Wiltshire K, Day L, Dykeman J, Steeves T, Jette N. The incidence and prevalence of Huntington's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mov Disord. 27(9), 1083, 2012.

13) Lai BCL, Tsui JKC. Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. BCMJ 43(3), 133, 2001.

14) American Health Assistance Foundation (AHAF). The facts on Alzheimer's disease. http://www.brightfocus.org/alzheimers/about/understanding/alzheimer-s-disease-stats-with-citations-for-pdf.pdf

15) Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. Statistics on Parkinson's. http://www.pdf.org/en/parkinson_statistics


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